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2.0 习题一 代码 # A comment, this is so you can read your program later. # Anything after the # is ignored by python. Print 'I could have code like this.测试拷贝中文到这里。. I can download the stable 8.5.18 from the ActiveState website (as recommend by python, which works with the python installations from python.org (as they look for any other version of Tcl/Tk before resorting to the unstable macOS default 8.5.9). Jun 04, 2016 Until Python dot org starts compiling their Python downloads with newer Tcl/Tk frameworks, these will not be recognized when installed on the user's Mac. However, I have compiled Python 2.7.13, and 3.6.0 specifically to use the ActiveState Tcl/Tk 8.6.4 frameworks, and these work fine for me.
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ActiveTclMulti-platform and commercially supported
Sep 16, 2016 Will installing Tcl/Tk 18.104.22.168 fix it because the Python in my 3.5.2 installer from python.org has been compiled to link it? (I intend to just run the Tcl/Tk package installer over what I have now, which is OS standard Python/Tcl/Tk software plus Python 3.5.2 and Tcl/Tk 22.214.171.124 - is this OK?).
Tklib 0.7Feb 9, 2020
Tcllib 1.20Dec 2, 2019
There are several options available for obtaining Tcl/Tk. Theseare listed below.
Operating System Packages
Most Unix / Linux operating system distributions, as well as Mac OS X,include Tcl/Tk. If not already installed, you can use your system'spackage manager to install the appropriate packages. For example,on a Debian system, you can type
to install Tcl. Note than some components, even including Tk,man pages and C libraries may be separate packages and installedin a similar manner.
To check the version installed, start Tcl/Tk(usually via running 'tclsh' or 'wish' from a command line),and typing
This will tell you what version you're running.
If you do not have privileges to install software or if you needa newer version than the one provided by the system, you may useone of the alternative means of obtaining Tcl as described below.
Pre-built Tcl distributions for many common platforms are availablefor download. These include both traditional installers as well assingle file 'download and run' executables. SeeBinary distributions.
Finally, you always have the option of downloading the Tcl/Tk sourcedistributions and building it yourself. SeeSource distributions for instructionson downloading and compiling.
A very large number of libraries and extensions are available for Tcl/Tk.The most popular and commonly used ones are catalogued in theGreat Unified Tcl/TkExtension Repository. (In other words, get them from the GUTTER.)The Tcler's Wiki is an alternate,but uncategorized, resource for the same.
Tcl/Tk is open source (based on a BSD-style license), so you canuse it and modify it virtually any way you want, including forcommercial uses. Here is the Tcl source distributionlicense, but be sure to check the license for any particulardistribution you use.
This is the main Tcl Developer Xchange site,www.tcl-lang.org .About this Site [email protected]
Home About Tcl/Tk Software Core Development Community Documentation
Bob Savage <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Python on a Mac running macOS is in principle very similar to Python onany other Unix platform, but there are a number of additional features such asthe IDE and the Package Manager that are worth pointing out.
5.1. Getting and Installing MacPython¶
macOS since version 10.8 comes with Python 2.7 pre-installed by Apple. If you wish, youare invited to install the most recent version of Python 3 from the Pythonwebsite (https://www.python.org). A current “universal binary” build of Python,which runs natively on the Mac’s new Intel and legacy PPC CPU’s, is availablethere.
What you get after installing is a number of things:
Python3.9folder in your
Applicationsfolder. In hereyou find IDLE, the development environment that is a standard part of officialPython distributions; and PythonLauncher, which handles double-clicking Pythonscripts from the Finder.
/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework, which includes thePython executable and libraries. The installer adds this location to your shellpath. To uninstall MacPython, you can simply remove these three things. Asymlink to the Python executable is placed in /usr/local/bin/.
The Apple-provided build of Python is installed in
/usr/bin/python,respectively. You should never modify or delete these, as they areApple-controlled and are used by Apple- or third-party software. Remember thatif you choose to install a newer Python version from python.org, you will havetwo different but functional Python installations on your computer, so it willbe important that your paths and usages are consistent with what you want to do.
IDLE includes a help menu that allows you to access Python documentation. If youare completely new to Python you should start reading the tutorial introductionin that document.
If you are familiar with Python on other Unix platforms you should read thesection on running Python scripts from the Unix shell.
5.1.1. How to run a Python script¶
Your best way to get started with Python on macOS is through the IDLEintegrated development environment, see section The IDE and use the Help menuwhen the IDE is running.
If you want to run Python scripts from the Terminal window command line or fromthe Finder you first need an editor to create your script. macOS comes with anumber of standard Unix command line editors, vim andemacs among them. If you want a more Mac-like editor,BBEdit or TextWrangler from Bare Bones Software (seehttp://www.barebones.com/products/bbedit/index.html) are good choices, as isTextMate (see https://macromates.com/). Other editors includeGvim (http://macvim-dev.github.io/macvim/) and Aquamacs(http://aquamacs.org/).
To run your script from the Terminal window you must make sure that
/usr/local/bin is in your shell search path.
To run your script from the Finder you have two options:
Drag it to PythonLauncher
Select PythonLauncher as the default application to open yourscript (or any .py script) through the finder Info window and double-click it.PythonLauncher has various preferences to control how your script islaunched. Option-dragging allows you to change these for one invocation, or useits Preferences menu to change things globally.
5.1.2. Running scripts with a GUI¶
With older versions of Python, there is one macOS quirk that you need to beaware of: programs that talk to the Aqua window manager (in other words,anything that has a GUI) need to be run in a special way. Use pythonwinstead of python to start such scripts.
With Python 3.9, you can use either python or pythonw.
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Python on macOS honors all standard Unix environment variables such as
PYTHONPATH, but setting these variables for programs started from theFinder is non-standard as the Finder does not read your
.cshrc at startup. You need to create a file
~/.MacOSX/environment.plist. See Apple’s Technical Document QA1067 fordetails.
For more information on installation Python packages in MacPython, see sectionInstalling Additional Python Packages.
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5.2. The IDE¶
MacPython ships with the standard IDLE development environment. A goodintroduction to using IDLE can be found athttp://www.hashcollision.org/hkn/python/idle_intro/index.html.
5.3. Installing Additional Python Packages¶
There are several methods to install additional Python packages:
Packages can be installed via the standard Python distutils mode (
Many packages can also be installed via the setuptools extensionor pip wrapper, see https://pip.pypa.io/.
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5.4. GUI Programming on the Mac¶
There are several options for building GUI applications on the Mac with Python.
PyObjC is a Python binding to Apple’s Objective-C/Cocoa framework, which isthe foundation of most modern Mac development. Information on PyObjC isavailable from https://pypi.org/project/pyobjc/.
The standard Python GUI toolkit is
tkinter, based on the cross-platformTk toolkit (https://www.tcl.tk). An Aqua-native version of Tk is bundled with OSX by Apple, and the latest version can be downloaded and installed fromhttps://www.activestate.com; it can also be built from source.
wxPython is another popular cross-platform GUI toolkit that runs natively onmacOS. Packages and documentation are available from https://www.wxpython.org.
PyQt is another popular cross-platform GUI toolkit that runs natively onmacOS. More information can be found athttps://riverbankcomputing.com/software/pyqt/intro.
5.5. Distributing Python Applications on the Mac¶
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The standard tool for deploying standalone Python applications on the Mac ispy2app. More information on installing and using py2app can be foundat http://undefined.org/python/#py2app.
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5.6. Other Resources¶
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The MacPython mailing list is an excellent support resource for Python users anddevelopers on the Mac:
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Another useful resource is the MacPython wiki: